Elizabeth Zimmerman’s explanations for how to produce a “conventional heel” sock for any size with any yarn. Extremely clear and flexible, you just add your own stitches and colors to the basic recipe.
Recommends about 60 stitches for a medium women’s sock, knitting in fingering weight on size 0 needles, but anything will do. 100g will make a high-ankle pair for women’s large, with a bit left for future repairs. A small needle is desirable, as dense fabric will wear much better.